Recent Trend

NonEuclidean
A Non-Euclidean Rendering Engine for 3D scenes.
org-roam
Rudimentary Roam replica with Org-mode
guietta

learngo
1000+ Hand-Crafted Go Examples, Exercises, and Quizzes
system-design-primer
Learn how to design large-scale systems. Prep for the system design interview. Includes Anki flashcards.
pumpkin-book
《机器学习》(西瓜书)公式推导解析,在线阅读地址:https://datawhalechina.github.io/pumpkin-book
jexcel
jExcel is a lightweight vanilla javascript plugin to create amazing web-based interactive tables and spreadsheets compatible with Excel or any other spreadsheet software.
pure-bash-bible
? A collection of pure bash alternatives to external processes.
google-research
Google Research
Complete-Python-3-Bootcamp
Course Files for Complete Python 3 Bootcamp Course on Udemy
You-Dont-Know-JS
A book series on JavaScript. @YDKJS on twitter.
backstage
Backstage is an open platform for building developer portals
Warde
Simple and minimalistic server dashboard
warp
A super-easy, composable, web server framework for warp speeds.
midway
Midway is a Node.js Serverless Framework for front-end/full-stack developers. Build the application for next decade. Works on AWS, Aliyun, Tencent-Cloud and traditional VM/Container.
EasyOCR
Ready-to-use OCR with 40+ languages supported including Chinese, Japanese, Korean and Thai
awesome-discord-communities
A curated list of awesome Discord communities for programmers
electron
Build cross-platform desktop apps with JavaScript, HTML, and CSS
jsonbase
A database software completely built as JSON files in backend. A powerful, portable and simple database works on top of JSON files. It is like a database software, currently having basic CRUD operatio
Ward
Simple and minimalistic server dashboard
breaking-bad-cast
App to show cast info for breaking bad
EssentialMath

J.A.R.V.I.S
python powered Intelligent System
PracticalSessions2020
Repository for tutorial sessions at EEML2020
flutterfire
? A collection of Firebase plugins for Flutter apps.
fenix
Firefox Preview
go-admin
基于Gin + Vue + Element UI的前后端分离权限管理系统脚手架(包含了:基础用户管理功能,jwt鉴权,代码生成器,RBAC资源控制,表单构建等)文档:http://doc.zhangwj.com/go-admin-site/ Demo: http://www.zhangwj.com/#/login
vitepress
Vite & Vue powered static site generator
zulip
Zulip server - powerful open source team chat
pygooglenews
If Google News had a Python library
UnblockNeteaseMusic
Revive unavailable songs for Netease Cloud Music
yapi
YApi 是一个可本地部署的、打通前后端及QA的、可视化的接口管理平台
telegraf
The plugin-driven server agent for collecting & reporting metrics.
cassandra-workshop-series
All materials for the Cassandra Workshop Series in a single place
just-react
React技术揭秘
rocketredis
A beautiful Redis GUI ?
Summer2021-Internships
Collection of Summer 2021 tech internships!
cubit
Cubit is a lightweight state management solution. It is a subset of the bloc package that does not rely on events and instead uses methods to emit new states.
vite
Native-ESM powered web dev build tool. It's fast.
electron-typescript-react
An Electron boilerplate including TypeScript, React, Jest and ESLint.
responsively-app
A modified browser that helps in responsive web development.
uno
Build Mobile, Desktop and WebAssembly apps with C# and XAML. Today. Open source and professionally supported.
material-ui
React components for faster and easier web development. Build your own design system, or start with Material Design.
BotBuilder-Samples
Welcome to the Bot Framework samples repository. Here you will find task-focused samples in C#, JavaScript and TypeScript to help you get started with the Bot Framework SDK!
OpenPCDet
OpenPCDet Toolbox for LiDAR-based 3D Object Detection.
jira-clone-angular
A simplified Jira clone built with Angular 9 and Akita
snipsnap
The ultimate snippets collection for VS Code
hacker-scripts
Based on a true story
v
Simple, fast, safe, compiled language for developing maintainable software. Compiles itself in <1s with zero library dependencies. https://vlang.io
DataX

react-hook-form
? React Hooks for forms validation (Web + React Native)
nvm
Node Version Manager - POSIX-compliant bash script to manage multiple active node.js versions
datax-web
DataX集成可视化页面,选择数据源即可一键生成数据同步任务,支持批量创建RDBMS数据同步任务,集成开源调度系统,支持分布式、增量同步数据、实时查看运行日志、监控执行器资源、KILL运行进程、数据源信息加密等。
taro
开放式跨端跨框架解决方案,支持使用 React/Vue/Nerv 等框架来开发微信/京东/百度/支付宝/字节跳动/ QQ 小程序/H5 等应用。 https://taro.jd.com/
cadmus
A GUI frontend for @werman's Pulse Audio real-time noise suppression plugin
PENTESTING-BIBLE
Updates to this repository will continue to arrive until the number of links reaches 10000 links & 10000 pdf files .Learn Ethical Hacking and penetration testing .hundreds of ethical hacking & penetra
hexapod
Blazing fast hexapod robot simulator with React and Plotly.
WickedEngine
C++ game engine focusing on modern rendering techniques and performance.
Silice
Silice is an open source language that simplifies writing algorithms fully exploiting FPGA architectures.
python-training
Python training for business analysts and traders
White-box-Cartoonization
Official tensorflow implementation for CVPR2020 paper “Learning to Cartoonize Using White-box Cartoon Representations”
ultimate-go
Ultimate Go study guide
cascadia-code
This is a fun, new monospaced font that includes programming ligatures and is designed to enhance the modern look and feel of the Windows Terminal.
rolling-rhino
Rolling Rhino; convert Ubuntu into a rolling release as seen on YouTube
precourse
A repo for the pre-course work at home exercises
python3-in-one-pic
Learn python3 in one picture.
TensorflowTTS
? TensorflowTTS: Real-Time State-of-the-art Speech Synthesis for Tensorflow 2
deep-learning-drizzle
Drench yourself in Deep Learning, Reinforcement Learning, Machine Learning, Computer Vision, and NLP by learning from these exciting lectures!!
SciencePlots
Matplotlib styles for scientific plotting
Pulse
A pendant to warn you when you touch your face
my-flutter-challenges
A collection of all my Flutter Challenges
super-productivity
To-do list & time tracker for programmers & other digital workers with Jira, Github and Gitlab integration
chat
Instant messaging server; backend in Go; iOS, Android, web, command line clients; chatbots
spektral
Graph Neural Networks with Keras and Tensorflow 2.
snowpack
The near-instant build tool for modern web apps.
Deep-learning-books
Books for machine learning, deep learning, math, NLP, CV, RL, etc
awesome-courses
? List of awesome university courses for learning Computer Science!
shardingsphere-elasticjob-lite
Distributed scheduled job framework
advanced-java
? 互联网 Java 工程师进阶知识完全扫盲:涵盖高并发、分布式、高可用、微服务、海量数据处理等领域知识,后端同学必看,前端同学也可学习
FreeDVDBoot
PlayStation 2 DVD Player Exploit
secretive
Store SSH keys in the Secure Enclave
cnn-explainer
Learning Convolutional Neural Networks with Interactive Visualization.
canal
阿里巴巴 MySQL binlog 增量订阅&消费组件
opencv
Open Source Computer Vision Library
gin
Gin is a HTTP web framework written in Go (Golang). It features a Martini-like API with much better performance -- up to 40 times faster. If you need smashing performance, get yourself some Gin.
leetcode
LeetCode Solutions: A Record of My Problem Solving Journey.( leetcode题解,记录自己的leetcode解题之路。)
lemmy
? Building a federated alternative to reddit in rust
emigui
egui: Immediate mode GUI written in Rust, made for WASM
getx
Open screens/snackbars/dialogs/bottomSheets without context, manage states and inject dependencies easily with Get.
beego
beego is an open-source, high-performance web framework for the Go programming language.
vector
A lightweight and ultra-fast tool for building observability pipelines
Bug-Bounty-Toolz
BBT - Bug Bounty Tools
fullstack-course4
Example code for HTML, CSS, and Javascript for Web Developers Coursera Course
vnpy
基于Python的开源量化交易平台开发框架
honkit
? HonKit is building beautiful books using Markdown - Fork of GitBook
scrcpy
Display and control your Android device
formik
Build forms in React, without the tears ?
Mindustry
A sandbox tower defense game
arcore-depth-lab
ARCore Depth Lab is a set of Depth API samples that provides assets using depth for advanced geometry-aware features in AR interaction and rendering. (UIST 2020)
VTIL-Core
Virtual-machine Translation Intermediate Language
numerical-linear-algebra
Free online textbook of Jupyter notebooks for fast.ai Computational Linear Algebra course
Unlock-netease-cloud-music
解锁网易云音乐客户端变灰歌曲
FastSurfer
PyTorch implementation of FastSurferCNN
corona
Solar2D Game Engine main repository (ex Corona SDK)
OnJava8
《On Java 8》中文版,又名《Java编程思想》 第5版
Pwdb-Public
A collection of all the data i could extract from 1 billion leaked credentials from internet.
aviary.sh
Minimal distributed configuration management in bash
CalCAT
California COVID Assessment Tool
angular-cli
CLI tool for Angular
fgprof
? fgprof is a sampling Go profiler that allows you to analyze On-CPU as well as Off-CPU (e.g. I/O) time together.
terraform-provider-aws
Terraform AWS provider
elevator.js
Finally, a "back to top" button that behaves like a real elevator.
reverse-proxy
A toolkit for developing high-performance HTTP reverse proxy applications.
angular
One framework. Mobile & desktop.
data-science-ipython-notebooks
Data science Python notebooks: Deep learning (TensorFlow, Theano, Caffe, Keras), scikit-learn, Kaggle, big data (Spark, Hadoop MapReduce, HDFS), matplotlib, pandas, NumPy, SciPy, Python essentials, AW
linuxupskillchallenge
Learn the skills required to sysadmin a remote Linux server from the commandline.
PhotoGIMP
A Patch for GIMP 2.10+ for Photoshop Users
toydb
Distributed SQL database in Rust, written as a learning project
Active-Directory-Exploitation-Cheat-Sheet
A cheat sheet that contains common enumeration and attack methods for Windows Active Directory.
fluentui-system-icons
Fluent System Icons is a set of mobile platform icons from Microsoft
php-src
The PHP Interpreter
awesome-selfhosted
A list of Free Software network services and web applications which can be hosted locally. Selfhosting is the process of hosting and managing applications instead of renting from Software-as-a-Service
rasa
? Open source machine learning framework to automate text- and voice-based conversations: NLU, dialogue management, connect to Slack, Facebook, and more - Create chatbots and voice assistants
jax
Composable transformations of Python+NumPy programs: differentiate, vectorize, JIT to GPU/TPU, and more
awesome-interview-questions
A curated awesome list of lists of interview questions. Feel free to contribute! ?
PowerToys
Windows system utilities to maximize productivity
bookshelf
Build a ReactJS App workshop
Privilege-Escalation
This cheasheet is aimed at the CTF Players and Beginners to help them understand the fundamentals of Privilege Escalation with examples.
Papers-Literature-ML-DL-RL-AI
Highly cited and useful papers related to machine learning, deep learning, AI, game theory, reinforcement learning
ruby
The Ruby Programming Language [mirror]
brew
? The missing package manager for macOS (or Linux)
ALAE
[CVPR2020] Adversarial Latent Autoencoders
ant-design
? A UI Design Language and React UI library
itlwm
IntelWifi
Paper
High performance Spigot fork that aims to fix gameplay and mechanics inconsistencies
learnopencv
Learn OpenCV : C++ and Python Examples
tailwindcss
A utility-first CSS framework for rapid UI development.
esbuild
An extremely fast JavaScript bundler and minifier
react-query
⚛️ Hooks for fetching, caching and updating asynchronous data in React
3d-photo-inpainting
[CVPR 2020] 3D Photography using Context-aware Layered Depth Inpainting
nginx-ui
Nginx UI allows you to access and modify the nginx configurations files without cli.
SpringCloudLearning
《史上最简单的Spring Cloud教程源码》
raspberry-pi-os
Learning operating system development using Linux kernel and Raspberry Pi
abstreet
A traffic simulation game exploring how small changes to roads affect cyclists, transit users, pedestrians, and drivers.
spark
Apache Spark - A unified analytics engine for large-scale data processing
thingsboard
Open-source IoT Platform - Device management, data collection, processing and visualization.
MachineLearningECT
For better displaying html files and course material use this link
ZY-Player
▶️ 跨平台桌面端视频资源播放器.简洁无广告.免费高颜值. ?
wrk
Modern HTTP benchmarking tool
kugimiya-rainbow-fart
傲娇钉宫,鞭写鞭骂 - 钉宫理惠 vscode-rainbow-fart 扩展语音包
awesome-blazor
Resources for Blazor, a .NET web framework using C#/Razor and HTML that runs in the browser with WebAssembly.
L-ink_Card
Smart NFC & ink-Display Card
DeloresDev
Read all about it on GrumpyGamer:
IBMYes

elegant-emacs
A very minimal but elegant emacs (I think)
The-Open-Book

TeachYourselfCS-CN
TeachYourselfCS 的中文翻译 | A Chinese translation of TeachYourselfCS
tsunami-security-scanner
Tsunami is a general purpose network security scanner with an extensible plugin system for detecting high severity vulnerabilities with high confidence.
ThreeDPoseTracker

spring-boot-demo
spring boot demo 是一个用来深度学习并实战 spring boot 的项目,目前总共包含 65 个集成demo,已经完成 53 个。 该项目已成功集成 actuator(监控)、admin(可视化监控)、logback(日志)、aopLog(通过AOP记录web请求日志)、统一异常处理(json级别和页面级别)、freemarker(模板引擎)、thymeleaf(模板引擎)、Be
Better-Python-59-Ways
Code Sample of Book "Effective Python: 59 Specific Ways to Write Better Pyton" by Brett Slatkin
rpi-vk-driver
VK driver for the Raspberry Pi (Broadcom Videocore IV)
Face-Depixelizer
Face Depixelizer based on "PULSE: Self-Supervised Photo Upsampling via Latent Space Exploration of Generative Models" repository.
python-small-examples
告别枯燥,60 秒学会一个 Python 小例子
workshop
AI and Machine Learning with Kubeflow, Amazon EKS, and SageMaker
DeDRM_tools
DeDRM tools for ebooks
coding-interview-university
A complete computer science study plan to become a software engineer.
COVID-19
Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) Cases, provided by JHU CSSE
Apollo-11
Original Apollo 11 Guidance Computer (AGC) source code for the command and lunar modules.
rust
Empowering everyone to build reliable and efficient software.
youtube-dl
Command-line program to download videos from YouTube.com and other video sites
arduino-esp32
Arduino core for the ESP32
awesomechat

OpenDiablo2
An open source re-implementation of Diablo 2
xxHash
Extremely fast non-cryptographic hash algorithm
public-apis
A collective list of free APIs for use in software and web development.
NotQuite0DayFriday
This is a repo which documents real bugs in real software to illustrate trends, learn how to prevent or find them more quickly.
kubernetes-goat
Kubernetes Goat is "Vulnerable by Design" Kubernetes Cluster.
project-based-learning
Curated list of project-based tutorials
pdown
PDown后继版,百度网盘代下载
vscode-rainbow-fart
一个在你编程时疯狂称赞你的 VSCode 扩展插件 | An VSCode extension that keeps giving you compliment while you are coding, it will checks the keywords of code to play suitable sounds.
fastlane

super-linter
Combination of multiple linters to install as a GitHub Action
Covid19Radar
Open Source / i18n / Cross Platform Contact Tracing App by exposure notification framework.
vxe-table

awesome-gog-galaxy
A list of GOG Galaxy 2.0 integrations and upcoming features
plugin.video.netflix
InputStream based Netflix plugin for Kodi
goplus
GoPlus - The Go+ language for data science
PKHeX
Pokémon Save File Editor
detectron2
Detectron2 is FAIR's next-generation platform for object detection and segmentation.
kubermatic
The Central Kubernetes Management Platform For Any Infrastructure
zoom-e2e-whitepaper
End-to-End Encryption for Zoom Meetings
GitHub-Chinese-Top-Charts

image-gpt

zju-icicles
浙江大学课程攻略共享计划
jupiter
Jupiter是douyu开源的面向服务治理的Golang微服务框架
pose-animator

SpringBoot-Labs
一个涵盖六个专栏:Spring Boot 2.X、Spring Cloud、Spring Cloud Alibaba、Dubbo、分布式消息队列、分布式事务的仓库。希望胖友小手一抖,右上角来个 Star,感恩 1024
expose
A beautiful, fully open-source, tunneling service - written in pure PHP
galaxy-integrations-python-api
NOTE: Please report here only issues related to the python API. Issues and general feedback regarding the Galaxy Client 2.0 shall be sent via Galaxy Client menu
springcloud-learning
一套涵盖大部分核心组件使用的Spring Cloud教程,包括Spring Cloud Alibaba及分布式事务Seata,基于Spring Cloud Greenwich及SpringBoot 2.1.7。20篇文章,篇篇精华,30个Demo,涵盖大部分应用场景。
silq

OpenSelfSup
Self-Supervised Learning Toolbox and Benchmark
Boop
A scriptable scratchpad for developers. In slow yet steady progress.
PARL
PARL A high-performance distributed training framework for Reinforcement Learning
algorithm-pattern
算法模板,最科学的刷题方式,最快速的刷题路径,你值得拥有~
hooks
React Hooks Library
azure-docs
Open source documentation of Microsoft Azure
lens
Lens - The Kubernetes IDE
vue

Python-Core-50-Courses
Python语言基础50课
aws-cdk
The AWS Cloud Development Kit is a framework for defining cloud infrastructure in code
multi-task-NLP
multi_task_NLP is a utility toolkit enabling NLP developers to easily train and infer a single model for multiple tasks.
Python-100-Days
Python - 100天从新手到大师
piranha
A tool for refactoring code related to feature flag APIs
davinci
Davinci is a DVsaaS (Data Visualization as a Service) Platform
stylegan2
StyleGAN2 - Official TensorFlow Implementation
pkgsite
[mirror] Home of the pkg.go.dev website
magnetW
磁力链接聚合搜索
100knocks-preprocess
データサイエンス100本ノック(構造化データ加工編)
byob
BYOB (Build Your Own Botnet)
cwa-app-ios
Native iOS app using the exposure notification framework from Apple.
build-your-own-x

cwa-website
Corona-Warn-App website
microsoft-graph-docs
Documentation for the Microsoft Graph REST API
azure-rest-api-specs
The source for REST API specifications for Microsoft Azure.
AZ-301-MicrosoftAzureArchitectDesign

Alamofire
Elegant HTTP Networking in Swift
argo-cd
Declarative continuous deployment for Kubernetes.
material-ui-pickers
Date & Time pickers, built with ❤️ for @material-ui/core
mbedtls
An open source, portable, easy to use, readable and flexible SSL library
faker
A library for generating fake data such as names, addresses, and phone numbers.
FairMOT
A simple baseline for one-shot multi-object tracking
css.gg
700+ Pure CSS, SVG & Figma UI Icons Available in SVG Sprite, styled-components, NPM & API
mbed-os
Arm Mbed OS is a platform operating system designed for the internet of things
testcontainers-java
Testcontainers is a Java library that supports JUnit tests, providing lightweight, throwaway instances of common databases, Selenium web browsers, or anything else that can run in a Docker container.
integrations-core
Core integrations of the Datadog Agent
cwa-verification-server
Backend implementation of the verification process
vault
A tool for secrets management, encryption as a service, and privileged access management
wikileaks-9-11-files
The files from the United States government on 9/11, released by wiki leaks.
pulse
PULSE: Self-Supervised Photo Upsampling via Latent Space Exploration of Generative Models
json
JSON for Modern C++
pifuhd
High-Resolution 3D Human Digitization from A Single Image.
termux-packages
Android terminal and Linux environment - packages repository.
macOS-Simple-KVM
Tools to set up a quick macOS VM in QEMU, accelerated by KVM.
wa-automate-nodejs

koreader
An ebook reader application supporting PDF, DjVu, EPUB, FB2 and many more formats, running on Cervantes, Kindle, Kobo, PocketBook and Android devices
devconnector_2.0
Social network for developers, built on the MERN stack
QuantumultX
QuantumultX
tunic
Install Linux from a running Windows system, without need for a live USB.
cwa-server
Backend implementation for the Apple/Google exposure notification API.
OpenCorePkg
OpenCore bootloader
gpt-3
GPT-3: Language Models are Few-Shot Learners
cwa-app-android
Native Android app using the Apple/Google exposure notification API.
twint
An advanced Twitter scraping & OSINT tool written in Python that doesn't use Twitter's API, allowing you to scrape a user's followers, following, Tweets and more while evading most API limitations.
vapor

free-programming-books

Arduino
ESP8266 core for Arduino
etcher
Flash OS images to SD cards & USB drives, safely and easily.
you-get
⏬ Dumb downloader that scrapes the web
ant-design-vue
An enterprise-class UI components based on Ant Design and Vue.
fastai
The fastai deep learning library, plus lessons and tutorials
iptv
Collection of 8000+ publicly available IPTV channels from all over the world
TheFrenchGhostys-YouTube-DL-Archivist-Scripts
The ultimate collection of scripts for YouTube-DL.
deno
A secure JavaScript and TypeScript runtime
nodejsscan
nodejsscan is a static security code scanner for Node.js applications.
lede
Lean's OpenWrt source
violent-python3
Source code for the book "Violent Python" by TJ O'Connor. The code has been fully converted to Python 3, reformatted to comply with PEP8 standards and refactored to eliminate issues involving the impl
AFNetworking
A delightful networking framework for iOS, macOS, watchOS, and tvOS.
Quantum
Microsoft Quantum Development Kit Samples
advanced-go-programming-book

audino
Open source audio annotation tool for humans™
blackhat-python3
Source code for the book "Black Hat Python" by Justin Seitz. The code has been fully converted to Python 3, reformatted to comply with PEP8 standards and refactored to eliminate issues of dependency r
javascript-questions
A long list of (advanced) JavaScript questions, and their explanations ✨
us-potus-model
Code for a dynamic multilevel Bayesian model to predict US presidential elections. Written in R and Stan.
mmf
A modular framework for vision & language multimodal research from Facebook AI Research (FAIR)
cypress-realworld-app
A payment application to demonstrate real-world usage of Cypress testing methods, patterns, and workflows.
nlp

cortex
Build machine learning APIs
hamler
Haskell-style functional programming language running on Erlang VM.
tinysearch

Win10-Initial-Setup-Script
PowerShell script for automation of routine tasks done after fresh installations of Windows 10 / Server 2016 / Server 2019
playwright
Node library to automate Chromium, Firefox and WebKit with a single API
howto-make-more-money
程序员如何优雅的挣零花钱,2.0版,升级为小书了。Most of this not work outside China , so no English translate
rocksdb
A library that provides an embeddable, persistent key-value store for fast storage.
JavaGuide
「Java学习+面试指南」一份涵盖大部分Java程序员所需要掌握的核心知识。
CVE-2020-0796-RCE-POC
CVE-2020-0796 Remote Code Execution POC
shapez.io
shapez.io is an open source base building game inspired by factorio! Available on web & desktop
theia
Eclipse Theia is a cloud & desktop IDE framework implemented in TypeScript.
CVPR2020-Code
CVPR 2020 论文开源项目合集
mall
mall项目是一套电商系统,包括前台商城系统及后台管理系统,基于SpringBoot+MyBatis实现,采用Docker容器化部署。 前台商城系统包含首页门户、商品推荐、商品搜索、商品展示、购物车、订单流程、会员中心、客户服务、帮助中心等模块。 后台管理系统包含商品管理、订单管理、会员管理、促销管理、运营管理、内容管理、统计报表、财务管理、权限管理、设置等模块。
Xamarin.Forms
Xamarin.Forms Official Home
TNN
TNN:由腾讯优图实验室打造,移动端高性能、轻量级推理框架,同时拥有跨平台、高性能、模型压缩、代码裁剪等众多突出优势。TNN框架在原有Rapidnet、ncnn框架的基础上进一步加强了移动端设备的支持以及性能优化,同时也借鉴了业界主流开源框架高性能和良好拓展性的优点。目前TNN已经在手Q、微视、P图等应用中落地,欢迎大家参与协同共建,促进TNN推理框架进一步完善。
esp_8_bit
Atari 8 bit computers, NES and SMS game consoles on your TV with nothing more than a ESP32 and a sense of nostalgia
fucking-algorithm
手把手撕LeetCode题目,扒各种算法套路的裤子。English version supported! Crack LeetCode, not only how, but also why.
stegcloak
Hide secrets with invisible characters in plain text securely using passwords
sendportal
Open-source self-hosted email marketing. Manage your own newsletters at a fraction of the cost.
managers-playbook

community
This repository holds the content submitted to https://cloud.google.com/community. Files added to the tutorials/ will appear at https://cloud.google.com/community/tutorials.
files-uwp
"More than just a rewrite of Windows Explorer"
gravity
Gravity Programming Language
livewire
A full-stack framework for Laravel that takes the pain out of building dynamic UIs.
colabcat

EquinoxProject
Full ASP.NET Core 3.1 application with DDD, CQRS and Event Sourcing concepts
hummingbird
Hummingbird compiles trained ML models into tensor computation for faster inference.
shan-shui-inf
Procedurally generated Chinese landscape painting.
CallStranger
Vulnerability checker for Callstranger (CVE-2020-12695)
utahfs
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youtube-dl

Python LINK
Command-line program to download videos from YouTube.com and other video sites

Build Status

youtube-dl - download videos from youtube.com or other video platforms

INSTALLATION

To install it right away for all UNIX users (Linux, macOS, etc.), type:

sudo curl -L https://yt-dl.org/downloads/latest/youtube-dl -o /usr/local/bin/youtube-dl
sudo chmod a+rx /usr/local/bin/youtube-dl

If you do not have curl, you can alternatively use a recent wget:

sudo wget https://yt-dl.org/downloads/latest/youtube-dl -O /usr/local/bin/youtube-dl
sudo chmod a+rx /usr/local/bin/youtube-dl

Windows users can download an .exe file and place it in any location on their PATH except for %SYSTEMROOT%\System32 (e.g. do not put in C:\Windows\System32).

You can also use pip:

sudo -H pip install --upgrade youtube-dl

This command will update youtube-dl if you have already installed it. See the pypi page for more information.

macOS users can install youtube-dl with Homebrew:

brew install youtube-dl

Or with MacPorts:

sudo port install youtube-dl

Alternatively, refer to the developer instructions for how to check out and work with the git repository. For further options, including PGP signatures, see the youtube-dl Download Page.

DESCRIPTION

youtube-dl is a command-line program to download videos from YouTube.com and a few more sites. It requires the Python interpreter, version 2.6, 2.7, or 3.2+, and it is not platform specific. It should work on your Unix box, on Windows or on macOS. It is released to the public domain, which means you can modify it, redistribute it or use it however you like.

youtube-dl [OPTIONS] URL [URL...]

OPTIONS

-h, --help                       Print this help text and exit
--version                        Print program version and exit
-U, --update                     Update this program to latest version. Make
                                 sure that you have sufficient permissions
                                 (run with sudo if needed)
-i, --ignore-errors              Continue on download errors, for example to
                                 skip unavailable videos in a playlist
--abort-on-error                 Abort downloading of further videos (in the
                                 playlist or the command line) if an error
                                 occurs
--dump-user-agent                Display the current browser identification
--list-extractors                List all supported extractors
--extractor-descriptions         Output descriptions of all supported
                                 extractors
--force-generic-extractor        Force extraction to use the generic
                                 extractor
--default-search PREFIX          Use this prefix for unqualified URLs. For
                                 example "gvsearch2:" downloads two videos
                                 from google videos for youtube-dl "large
                                 apple". Use the value "auto" to let
                                 youtube-dl guess ("auto_warning" to emit a
                                 warning when guessing). "error" just throws
                                 an error. The default value "fixup_error"
                                 repairs broken URLs, but emits an error if
                                 this is not possible instead of searching.
--ignore-config                  Do not read configuration files. When given
                                 in the global configuration file
                                 /etc/youtube-dl.conf: Do not read the user
                                 configuration in ~/.config/youtube-
                                 dl/config (%APPDATA%/youtube-dl/config.txt
                                 on Windows)
--config-location PATH           Location of the configuration file; either
                                 the path to the config or its containing
                                 directory.
--flat-playlist                  Do not extract the videos of a playlist,
                                 only list them.
--mark-watched                   Mark videos watched (YouTube only)
--no-mark-watched                Do not mark videos watched (YouTube only)
--no-color                       Do not emit color codes in output

Network Options:

--proxy URL                      Use the specified HTTP/HTTPS/SOCKS proxy.
                                 To enable SOCKS proxy, specify a proper
                                 scheme. For example
                                 socks5://127.0.0.1:1080/. Pass in an empty
                                 string (--proxy "") for direct connection
--socket-timeout SECONDS         Time to wait before giving up, in seconds
--source-address IP              Client-side IP address to bind to
-4, --force-ipv4                 Make all connections via IPv4
-6, --force-ipv6                 Make all connections via IPv6

Geo Restriction:

--geo-verification-proxy URL     Use this proxy to verify the IP address for
                                 some geo-restricted sites. The default
                                 proxy specified by --proxy (or none, if the
                                 option is not present) is used for the
                                 actual downloading.
--geo-bypass                     Bypass geographic restriction via faking
                                 X-Forwarded-For HTTP header
--no-geo-bypass                  Do not bypass geographic restriction via
                                 faking X-Forwarded-For HTTP header
--geo-bypass-country CODE        Force bypass geographic restriction with
                                 explicitly provided two-letter ISO 3166-2
                                 country code
--geo-bypass-ip-block IP_BLOCK   Force bypass geographic restriction with
                                 explicitly provided IP block in CIDR
                                 notation

Video Selection:

--playlist-start NUMBER          Playlist video to start at (default is 1)
--playlist-end NUMBER            Playlist video to end at (default is last)
--playlist-items ITEM_SPEC       Playlist video items to download. Specify
                                 indices of the videos in the playlist
                                 separated by commas like: "--playlist-items
                                 1,2,5,8" if you want to download videos
                                 indexed 1, 2, 5, 8 in the playlist. You can
                                 specify range: "--playlist-items
                                 1-3,7,10-13", it will download the videos
                                 at index 1, 2, 3, 7, 10, 11, 12 and 13.
--match-title REGEX              Download only matching titles (regex or
                                 caseless sub-string)
--reject-title REGEX             Skip download for matching titles (regex or
                                 caseless sub-string)
--max-downloads NUMBER           Abort after downloading NUMBER files
--min-filesize SIZE              Do not download any videos smaller than
                                 SIZE (e.g. 50k or 44.6m)
--max-filesize SIZE              Do not download any videos larger than SIZE
                                 (e.g. 50k or 44.6m)
--date DATE                      Download only videos uploaded in this date
--datebefore DATE                Download only videos uploaded on or before
                                 this date (i.e. inclusive)
--dateafter DATE                 Download only videos uploaded on or after
                                 this date (i.e. inclusive)
--min-views COUNT                Do not download any videos with less than
                                 COUNT views
--max-views COUNT                Do not download any videos with more than
                                 COUNT views
--match-filter FILTER            Generic video filter. Specify any key (see
                                 the "OUTPUT TEMPLATE" for a list of
                                 available keys) to match if the key is
                                 present, !key to check if the key is not
                                 present, key > NUMBER (like "comment_count
                                 > 12", also works with >=, <, <=, !=, =) to
                                 compare against a number, key = 'LITERAL'
                                 (like "uploader = 'Mike Smith'", also works
                                 with !=) to match against a string literal
                                 and & to require multiple matches. Values
                                 which are not known are excluded unless you
                                 put a question mark (?) after the operator.
                                 For example, to only match videos that have
                                 been liked more than 100 times and disliked
                                 less than 50 times (or the dislike
                                 functionality is not available at the given
                                 service), but who also have a description,
                                 use --match-filter "like_count > 100 &
                                 dislike_count <? 50 & description" .
--no-playlist                    Download only the video, if the URL refers
                                 to a video and a playlist.
--yes-playlist                   Download the playlist, if the URL refers to
                                 a video and a playlist.
--age-limit YEARS                Download only videos suitable for the given
                                 age
--download-archive FILE          Download only videos not listed in the
                                 archive file. Record the IDs of all
                                 downloaded videos in it.
--include-ads                    Download advertisements as well
                                 (experimental)

Download Options:

-r, --limit-rate RATE            Maximum download rate in bytes per second
                                 (e.g. 50K or 4.2M)
-R, --retries RETRIES            Number of retries (default is 10), or
                                 "infinite".
--fragment-retries RETRIES       Number of retries for a fragment (default
                                 is 10), or "infinite" (DASH, hlsnative and
                                 ISM)
--skip-unavailable-fragments     Skip unavailable fragments (DASH, hlsnative
                                 and ISM)
--abort-on-unavailable-fragment  Abort downloading when some fragment is not
                                 available
--keep-fragments                 Keep downloaded fragments on disk after
                                 downloading is finished; fragments are
                                 erased by default
--buffer-size SIZE               Size of download buffer (e.g. 1024 or 16K)
                                 (default is 1024)
--no-resize-buffer               Do not automatically adjust the buffer
                                 size. By default, the buffer size is
                                 automatically resized from an initial value
                                 of SIZE.
--http-chunk-size SIZE           Size of a chunk for chunk-based HTTP
                                 downloading (e.g. 10485760 or 10M) (default
                                 is disabled). May be useful for bypassing
                                 bandwidth throttling imposed by a webserver
                                 (experimental)
--playlist-reverse               Download playlist videos in reverse order
--playlist-random                Download playlist videos in random order
--xattr-set-filesize             Set file xattribute ytdl.filesize with
                                 expected file size
--hls-prefer-native              Use the native HLS downloader instead of
                                 ffmpeg
--hls-prefer-ffmpeg              Use ffmpeg instead of the native HLS
                                 downloader
--hls-use-mpegts                 Use the mpegts container for HLS videos,
                                 allowing to play the video while
                                 downloading (some players may not be able
                                 to play it)
--external-downloader COMMAND    Use the specified external downloader.
                                 Currently supports
                                 aria2c,avconv,axel,curl,ffmpeg,httpie,wget
--external-downloader-args ARGS  Give these arguments to the external
                                 downloader

Filesystem Options:

-a, --batch-file FILE            File containing URLs to download ('-' for
                                 stdin), one URL per line. Lines starting
                                 with '#', ';' or ']' are considered as
                                 comments and ignored.
--id                             Use only video ID in file name
-o, --output TEMPLATE            Output filename template, see the "OUTPUT
                                 TEMPLATE" for all the info
--autonumber-start NUMBER        Specify the start value for %(autonumber)s
                                 (default is 1)
--restrict-filenames             Restrict filenames to only ASCII
                                 characters, and avoid "&" and spaces in
                                 filenames
-w, --no-overwrites              Do not overwrite files
-c, --continue                   Force resume of partially downloaded files.
                                 By default, youtube-dl will resume
                                 downloads if possible.
--no-continue                    Do not resume partially downloaded files
                                 (restart from beginning)
--no-part                        Do not use .part files - write directly
                                 into output file
--no-mtime                       Do not use the Last-modified header to set
                                 the file modification time
--write-description              Write video description to a .description
                                 file
--write-info-json                Write video metadata to a .info.json file
--write-annotations              Write video annotations to a
                                 .annotations.xml file
--load-info-json FILE            JSON file containing the video information
                                 (created with the "--write-info-json"
                                 option)
--cookies FILE                   File to read cookies from and dump cookie
                                 jar in
--cache-dir DIR                  Location in the filesystem where youtube-dl
                                 can store some downloaded information
                                 permanently. By default
                                 $XDG_CACHE_HOME/youtube-dl or
                                 ~/.cache/youtube-dl . At the moment, only
                                 YouTube player files (for videos with
                                 obfuscated signatures) are cached, but that
                                 may change.
--no-cache-dir                   Disable filesystem caching
--rm-cache-dir                   Delete all filesystem cache files

Thumbnail images:

--write-thumbnail                Write thumbnail image to disk
--write-all-thumbnails           Write all thumbnail image formats to disk
--list-thumbnails                Simulate and list all available thumbnail
                                 formats

Verbosity / Simulation Options:

-q, --quiet                      Activate quiet mode
--no-warnings                    Ignore warnings
-s, --simulate                   Do not download the video and do not write
                                 anything to disk
--skip-download                  Do not download the video
-g, --get-url                    Simulate, quiet but print URL
-e, --get-title                  Simulate, quiet but print title
--get-id                         Simulate, quiet but print id
--get-thumbnail                  Simulate, quiet but print thumbnail URL
--get-description                Simulate, quiet but print video description
--get-duration                   Simulate, quiet but print video length
--get-filename                   Simulate, quiet but print output filename
--get-format                     Simulate, quiet but print output format
-j, --dump-json                  Simulate, quiet but print JSON information.
                                 See the "OUTPUT TEMPLATE" for a description
                                 of available keys.
-J, --dump-single-json           Simulate, quiet but print JSON information
                                 for each command-line argument. If the URL
                                 refers to a playlist, dump the whole
                                 playlist information in a single line.
--print-json                     Be quiet and print the video information as
                                 JSON (video is still being downloaded).
--newline                        Output progress bar as new lines
--no-progress                    Do not print progress bar
--console-title                  Display progress in console titlebar
-v, --verbose                    Print various debugging information
--dump-pages                     Print downloaded pages encoded using base64
                                 to debug problems (very verbose)
--write-pages                    Write downloaded intermediary pages to
                                 files in the current directory to debug
                                 problems
--print-traffic                  Display sent and read HTTP traffic
-C, --call-home                  Contact the youtube-dl server for debugging
--no-call-home                   Do NOT contact the youtube-dl server for
                                 debugging

Workarounds:

--encoding ENCODING              Force the specified encoding (experimental)
--no-check-certificate           Suppress HTTPS certificate validation
--prefer-insecure                Use an unencrypted connection to retrieve
                                 information about the video. (Currently
                                 supported only for YouTube)
--user-agent UA                  Specify a custom user agent
--referer URL                    Specify a custom referer, use if the video
                                 access is restricted to one domain
--add-header FIELD:VALUE         Specify a custom HTTP header and its value,
                                 separated by a colon ':'. You can use this
                                 option multiple times
--bidi-workaround                Work around terminals that lack
                                 bidirectional text support. Requires bidiv
                                 or fribidi executable in PATH
--sleep-interval SECONDS         Number of seconds to sleep before each
                                 download when used alone or a lower bound
                                 of a range for randomized sleep before each
                                 download (minimum possible number of
                                 seconds to sleep) when used along with
                                 --max-sleep-interval.
--max-sleep-interval SECONDS     Upper bound of a range for randomized sleep
                                 before each download (maximum possible
                                 number of seconds to sleep). Must only be
                                 used along with --min-sleep-interval.

Video Format Options:

-f, --format FORMAT              Video format code, see the "FORMAT
                                 SELECTION" for all the info
--all-formats                    Download all available video formats
--prefer-free-formats            Prefer free video formats unless a specific
                                 one is requested
-F, --list-formats               List all available formats of requested
                                 videos
--youtube-skip-dash-manifest     Do not download the DASH manifests and
                                 related data on YouTube videos
--merge-output-format FORMAT     If a merge is required (e.g.
                                 bestvideo+bestaudio), output to given
                                 container format. One of mkv, mp4, ogg,
                                 webm, flv. Ignored if no merge is required

Subtitle Options:

--write-sub                      Write subtitle file
--write-auto-sub                 Write automatically generated subtitle file
                                 (YouTube only)
--all-subs                       Download all the available subtitles of the
                                 video
--list-subs                      List all available subtitles for the video
--sub-format FORMAT              Subtitle format, accepts formats
                                 preference, for example: "srt" or
                                 "ass/srt/best"
--sub-lang LANGS                 Languages of the subtitles to download
                                 (optional) separated by commas, use --list-
                                 subs for available language tags

Authentication Options:

-u, --username USERNAME          Login with this account ID
-p, --password PASSWORD          Account password. If this option is left
                                 out, youtube-dl will ask interactively.
-2, --twofactor TWOFACTOR        Two-factor authentication code
-n, --netrc                      Use .netrc authentication data
--video-password PASSWORD        Video password (vimeo, smotri, youku)

Adobe Pass Options:

--ap-mso MSO                     Adobe Pass multiple-system operator (TV
                                 provider) identifier, use --ap-list-mso for
                                 a list of available MSOs
--ap-username USERNAME           Multiple-system operator account login
--ap-password PASSWORD           Multiple-system operator account password.
                                 If this option is left out, youtube-dl will
                                 ask interactively.
--ap-list-mso                    List all supported multiple-system
                                 operators

Post-processing Options:

-x, --extract-audio              Convert video files to audio-only files
                                 (requires ffmpeg or avconv and ffprobe or
                                 avprobe)
--audio-format FORMAT            Specify audio format: "best", "aac",
                                 "flac", "mp3", "m4a", "opus", "vorbis", or
                                 "wav"; "best" by default; No effect without
                                 -x
--audio-quality QUALITY          Specify ffmpeg/avconv audio quality, insert
                                 a value between 0 (better) and 9 (worse)
                                 for VBR or a specific bitrate like 128K
                                 (default 5)
--recode-video FORMAT            Encode the video to another format if
                                 necessary (currently supported:
                                 mp4|flv|ogg|webm|mkv|avi)
--postprocessor-args ARGS        Give these arguments to the postprocessor
-k, --keep-video                 Keep the video file on disk after the post-
                                 processing; the video is erased by default
--no-post-overwrites             Do not overwrite post-processed files; the
                                 post-processed files are overwritten by
                                 default
--embed-subs                     Embed subtitles in the video (only for mp4,
                                 webm and mkv videos)
--embed-thumbnail                Embed thumbnail in the audio as cover art
--add-metadata                   Write metadata to the video file
--metadata-from-title FORMAT     Parse additional metadata like song title /
                                 artist from the video title. The format
                                 syntax is the same as --output. Regular
                                 expression with named capture groups may
                                 also be used. The parsed parameters replace
                                 existing values. Example: --metadata-from-
                                 title "%(artist)s - %(title)s" matches a
                                 title like "Coldplay - Paradise". Example
                                 (regex): --metadata-from-title
                                 "(?P<artist>.+?) - (?P<title>.+)"
--xattrs                         Write metadata to the video file's xattrs
                                 (using dublin core and xdg standards)
--fixup POLICY                   Automatically correct known faults of the
                                 file. One of never (do nothing), warn (only
                                 emit a warning), detect_or_warn (the
                                 default; fix file if we can, warn
                                 otherwise)
--prefer-avconv                  Prefer avconv over ffmpeg for running the
                                 postprocessors
--prefer-ffmpeg                  Prefer ffmpeg over avconv for running the
                                 postprocessors (default)
--ffmpeg-location PATH           Location of the ffmpeg/avconv binary;
                                 either the path to the binary or its
                                 containing directory.
--exec CMD                       Execute a command on the file after
                                 downloading and post-processing, similar to
                                 find's -exec syntax. Example: --exec 'adb
                                 push {} /sdcard/Music/ && rm {}'
--convert-subs FORMAT            Convert the subtitles to other format
                                 (currently supported: srt|ass|vtt|lrc)

CONFIGURATION

You can configure youtube-dl by placing any supported command line option to a configuration file. On Linux and macOS, the system wide configuration file is located at /etc/youtube-dl.conf and the user wide configuration file at ~/.config/youtube-dl/config. On Windows, the user wide configuration file locations are %APPDATA%\youtube-dl\config.txt or C:\Users\<user name>\youtube-dl.conf. Note that by default configuration file may not exist so you may need to create it yourself.

For example, with the following configuration file youtube-dl will always extract the audio, not copy the mtime, use a proxy and save all videos under Movies directory in your home directory:

# Lines starting with # are comments

# Always extract audio
-x

# Do not copy the mtime
--no-mtime

# Use this proxy
--proxy 127.0.0.1:3128

# Save all videos under Movies directory in your home directory
-o ~/Movies/%(title)s.%(ext)s

Note that options in configuration file are just the same options aka switches used in regular command line calls thus there must be no whitespace after - or --, e.g. -o or --proxy but not - o or -- proxy.

You can use --ignore-config if you want to disable the configuration file for a particular youtube-dl run.

You can also use --config-location if you want to use custom configuration file for a particular youtube-dl run.

Authentication with .netrc file

You may also want to configure automatic credentials storage for extractors that support authentication (by providing login and password with --username and --password) in order not to pass credentials as command line arguments on every youtube-dl execution and prevent tracking plain text passwords in the shell command history. You can achieve this using a .netrc file on a per extractor basis. For that you will need to create a .netrc file in your $HOME and restrict permissions to read/write by only you:

touch $HOME/.netrc
chmod a-rwx,u+rw $HOME/.netrc

After that you can add credentials for an extractor in the following format, where extractor is the name of the extractor in lowercase:

machine <extractor> login <login> password <password>

For example:

machine youtube login [email protected] password my_youtube_password
machine twitch login my_twitch_account_name password my_twitch_password

To activate authentication with the .netrc file you should pass --netrc to youtube-dl or place it in the configuration file.

On Windows you may also need to setup the %HOME% environment variable manually. For example:

set HOME=%USERPROFILE%

OUTPUT TEMPLATE

The -o option allows users to indicate a template for the output file names.

tl;dr: navigate me to examples.

The basic usage is not to set any template arguments when downloading a single file, like in youtube-dl -o funny_video.flv "https://some/video". However, it may contain special sequences that will be replaced when downloading each video. The special sequences may be formatted according to python string formatting operations. For example, %(NAME)s or %(NAME)05d. To clarify, that is a percent symbol followed by a name in parentheses, followed by formatting operations. Allowed names along with sequence type are:

Available for the video that belongs to some logical chapter or section:

Available for the video that is an episode of some series or programme:

Available for the media that is a track or a part of a music album:

Each aforementioned sequence when referenced in an output template will be replaced by the actual value corresponding to the sequence name. Note that some of the sequences are not guaranteed to be present since they depend on the metadata obtained by a particular extractor. Such sequences will be replaced with NA.

For example for -o %(title)s-%(id)s.%(ext)s and an mp4 video with title youtube-dl test video and id BaW_jenozKcj, this will result in a youtube-dl test video-BaW_jenozKcj.mp4 file created in the current directory.

For numeric sequences you can use numeric related formatting, for example, %(view_count)05d will result in a string with view count padded with zeros up to 5 characters, like in 00042.

Output templates can also contain arbitrary hierarchical path, e.g. -o '%(playlist)s/%(playlist_index)s - %(title)s.%(ext)s' which will result in downloading each video in a directory corresponding to this path template. Any missing directory will be automatically created for you.

To use percent literals in an output template use %%. To output to stdout use -o -.

The current default template is %(title)s-%(id)s.%(ext)s.

In some cases, you don't want special characters such as 中, spaces, or &, such as when transferring the downloaded filename to a Windows system or the filename through an 8bit-unsafe channel. In these cases, add the --restrict-filenames flag to get a shorter title:

Output template and Windows batch files

If you are using an output template inside a Windows batch file then you must escape plain percent characters (%) by doubling, so that -o "%(title)s-%(id)s.%(ext)s" should become -o "%%(title)s-%%(id)s.%%(ext)s". However you should not touch %'s that are not plain characters, e.g. environment variables for expansion should stay intact: -o "C:\%HOMEPATH%\Desktop\%%(title)s.%%(ext)s".

Output template examples

Note that on Windows you may need to use double quotes instead of single.

$ youtube-dl --get-filename -o '%(title)s.%(ext)s' BaW_jenozKc
youtube-dl test video ''_ä↭?.mp4    # All kinds of weird characters

$ youtube-dl --get-filename -o '%(title)s.%(ext)s' BaW_jenozKc --restrict-filenames
youtube-dl_test_video_.mp4          # A simple file name

# Download YouTube playlist videos in separate directory indexed by video order in a playlist
$ youtube-dl -o '%(playlist)s/%(playlist_index)s - %(title)s.%(ext)s' https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLwiyx1dc3P2JR9N8gQaQN_BCvlSlap7re

# Download all playlists of YouTube channel/user keeping each playlist in separate directory:
$ youtube-dl -o '%(uploader)s/%(playlist)s/%(playlist_index)s - %(title)s.%(ext)s' https://www.youtube.com/user/TheLinuxFoundation/playlists

# Download Udemy course keeping each chapter in separate directory under MyVideos directory in your home
$ youtube-dl -u user -p password -o '~/MyVideos/%(playlist)s/%(chapter_number)s - %(chapter)s/%(title)s.%(ext)s' https://www.udemy.com/java-tutorial/

# Download entire series season keeping each series and each season in separate directory under C:/MyVideos
$ youtube-dl -o "C:/MyVideos/%(series)s/%(season_number)s - %(season)s/%(episode_number)s - %(episode)s.%(ext)s" https://videomore.ru/kino_v_detalayah/5_sezon/367617

# Stream the video being downloaded to stdout
$ youtube-dl -o - BaW_jenozKc

FORMAT SELECTION

By default youtube-dl tries to download the best available quality, i.e. if you want the best quality you don't need to pass any special options, youtube-dl will guess it for you by default.

But sometimes you may want to download in a different format, for example when you are on a slow or intermittent connection. The key mechanism for achieving this is so-called format selection based on which you can explicitly specify desired format, select formats based on some criterion or criteria, setup precedence and much more.

The general syntax for format selection is --format FORMAT or shorter -f FORMAT where FORMAT is a selector expression, i.e. an expression that describes format or formats you would like to download.

tl;dr: navigate me to examples.

The simplest case is requesting a specific format, for example with -f 22 you can download the format with format code equal to 22. You can get the list of available format codes for particular video using --list-formats or -F. Note that these format codes are extractor specific.

You can also use a file extension (currently 3gp, aac, flv, m4a, mp3, mp4, ogg, wav, webm are supported) to download the best quality format of a particular file extension served as a single file, e.g. -f webm will download the best quality format with the webm extension served as a single file.

You can also use special names to select particular edge case formats:

For example, to download the worst quality video-only format you can use -f worstvideo.

If you want to download multiple videos and they don't have the same formats available, you can specify the order of preference using slashes. Note that slash is left-associative, i.e. formats on the left hand side are preferred, for example -f 22/17/18 will download format 22 if it's available, otherwise it will download format 17 if it's available, otherwise it will download format 18 if it's available, otherwise it will complain that no suitable formats are available for download.

If you want to download several formats of the same video use a comma as a separator, e.g. -f 22,17,18 will download all these three formats, of course if they are available. Or a more sophisticated example combined with the precedence feature: -f 136/137/mp4/bestvideo,140/m4a/bestaudio.

You can also filter the video formats by putting a condition in brackets, as in -f "best[height=720]" (or -f "[filesize>10M]").

The following numeric meta fields can be used with comparisons <, <=, >, >=, = (equals), != (not equals):

Also filtering work for comparisons = (equals), ^= (starts with), $= (ends with), *= (contains) and following string meta fields:

Any string comparison may be prefixed with negation ! in order to produce an opposite comparison, e.g. !*= (does not contain).

Note that none of the aforementioned meta fields are guaranteed to be present since this solely depends on the metadata obtained by particular extractor, i.e. the metadata offered by the video hoster.

Formats for which the value is not known are excluded unless you put a question mark (?) after the operator. You can combine format filters, so -f "[height <=? 720][tbr>500]" selects up to 720p videos (or videos where the height is not known) with a bitrate of at least 500 KBit/s.

You can merge the video and audio of two formats into a single file using -f <video-format>+<audio-format> (requires ffmpeg or avconv installed), for example -f bestvideo+bestaudio will download the best video-only format, the best audio-only format and mux them together with ffmpeg/avconv.

Format selectors can also be grouped using parentheses, for example if you want to download the best mp4 and webm formats with a height lower than 480 you can use -f '(mp4,webm)[height<480]'.

Since the end of April 2015 and version 2015.04.26, youtube-dl uses -f bestvideo+bestaudio/best as the default format selection (see #5447, #5456). If ffmpeg or avconv are installed this results in downloading bestvideo and bestaudio separately and muxing them together into a single file giving the best overall quality available. Otherwise it falls back to best and results in downloading the best available quality served as a single file. best is also needed for videos that don't come from YouTube because they don't provide the audio and video in two different files. If you want to only download some DASH formats (for example if you are not interested in getting videos with a resolution higher than 1080p), you can add -f bestvideo[height<=?1080]+bestaudio/best to your configuration file. Note that if you use youtube-dl to stream to stdout (and most likely to pipe it to your media player then), i.e. you explicitly specify output template as -o -, youtube-dl still uses -f best format selection in order to start content delivery immediately to your player and not to wait until bestvideo and bestaudio are downloaded and muxed.

If you want to preserve the old format selection behavior (prior to youtube-dl 2015.04.26), i.e. you want to download the best available quality media served as a single file, you should explicitly specify your choice with -f best. You may want to add it to the configuration file in order not to type it every time you run youtube-dl.

Format selection examples

Note that on Windows you may need to use double quotes instead of single.

# Download best mp4 format available or any other best if no mp4 available
$ youtube-dl -f 'bestvideo[ext=mp4]+bestaudio[ext=m4a]/best[ext=mp4]/best'

# Download best format available but no better than 480p
$ youtube-dl -f 'bestvideo[height<=480]+bestaudio/best[height<=480]'

# Download best video only format but no bigger than 50 MB
$ youtube-dl -f 'best[filesize<50M]'

# Download best format available via direct link over HTTP/HTTPS protocol
$ youtube-dl -f '(bestvideo+bestaudio/best)[protocol^=http]'

# Download the best video format and the best audio format without merging them
$ youtube-dl -f 'bestvideo,bestaudio' -o '%(title)s.f%(format_id)s.%(ext)s'

Note that in the last example, an output template is recommended as bestvideo and bestaudio may have the same file name.

VIDEO SELECTION

Videos can be filtered by their upload date using the options --date, --datebefore or --dateafter. They accept dates in two formats:

Examples:

# Download only the videos uploaded in the last 6 months
$ youtube-dl --dateafter now-6months

# Download only the videos uploaded on January 1, 1970
$ youtube-dl --date 19700101

$ # Download only the videos uploaded in the 200x decade
$ youtube-dl --dateafter 20000101 --datebefore 20091231

FAQ

How do I update youtube-dl?

If you've followed our manual installation instructions, you can simply run youtube-dl -U (or, on Linux, sudo youtube-dl -U).

If you have used pip, a simple sudo pip install -U youtube-dl is sufficient to update.

If you have installed youtube-dl using a package manager like apt-get or yum, use the standard system update mechanism to update. Note that distribution packages are often outdated. As a rule of thumb, youtube-dl releases at least once a month, and often weekly or even daily. Simply go to https://yt-dl.org to find out the current version. Unfortunately, there is nothing we youtube-dl developers can do if your distribution serves a really outdated version. You can (and should) complain to your distribution in their bugtracker or support forum.

As a last resort, you can also uninstall the version installed by your package manager and follow our manual installation instructions. For that, remove the distribution's package, with a line like

sudo apt-get remove -y youtube-dl

Afterwards, simply follow our manual installation instructions:

sudo wget https://yt-dl.org/downloads/latest/youtube-dl -O /usr/local/bin/youtube-dl
sudo chmod a+rx /usr/local/bin/youtube-dl
hash -r

Again, from then on you'll be able to update with sudo youtube-dl -U.

youtube-dl is extremely slow to start on Windows

Add a file exclusion for youtube-dl.exe in Windows Defender settings.

I'm getting an error Unable to extract OpenGraph title on YouTube playlists

YouTube changed their playlist format in March 2014 and later on, so you'll need at least youtube-dl 2014.07.25 to download all YouTube videos.

If you have installed youtube-dl with a package manager, pip, setup.py or a tarball, please use that to update. Note that Ubuntu packages do not seem to get updated anymore. Since we are not affiliated with Ubuntu, there is little we can do. Feel free to report bugs to the Ubuntu packaging people - all they have to do is update the package to a somewhat recent version. See above for a way to update.

I'm getting an error when trying to use output template: error: using output template conflicts with using title, video ID or auto number

Make sure you are not using -o with any of these options -t, --title, --id, -A or --auto-number set in command line or in a configuration file. Remove the latter if any.

Do I always have to pass -citw?

By default, youtube-dl intends to have the best options (incidentally, if you have a convincing case that these should be different, please file an issue where you explain that). Therefore, it is unnecessary and sometimes harmful to copy long option strings from webpages. In particular, the only option out of -citw that is regularly useful is -i.

Can you please put the -b option back?

Most people asking this question are not aware that youtube-dl now defaults to downloading the highest available quality as reported by YouTube, which will be 1080p or 720p in some cases, so you no longer need the -b option. For some specific videos, maybe YouTube does not report them to be available in a specific high quality format you're interested in. In that case, simply request it with the -f option and youtube-dl will try to download it.

I get HTTP error 402 when trying to download a video. What's this?

Apparently YouTube requires you to pass a CAPTCHA test if you download too much. We're considering to provide a way to let you solve the CAPTCHA, but at the moment, your best course of action is pointing a web browser to the youtube URL, solving the CAPTCHA, and restart youtube-dl.

Do I need any other programs?

youtube-dl works fine on its own on most sites. However, if you want to convert video/audio, you'll need avconv or ffmpeg. On some sites - most notably YouTube - videos can be retrieved in a higher quality format without sound. youtube-dl will detect whether avconv/ffmpeg is present and automatically pick the best option.

Videos or video formats streamed via RTMP protocol can only be downloaded when rtmpdump is installed. Downloading MMS and RTSP videos requires either mplayer or mpv to be installed.

I have downloaded a video but how can I play it?

Once the video is fully downloaded, use any video player, such as mpv, vlc or mplayer.

I extracted a video URL with -g, but it does not play on another machine / in my web browser.

It depends a lot on the service. In many cases, requests for the video (to download/play it) must come from the same IP address and with the same cookies and/or HTTP headers. Use the --cookies option to write the required cookies into a file, and advise your downloader to read cookies from that file. Some sites also require a common user agent to be used, use --dump-user-agent to see the one in use by youtube-dl. You can also get necessary cookies and HTTP headers from JSON output obtained with --dump-json.

It may be beneficial to use IPv6; in some cases, the restrictions are only applied to IPv4. Some services (sometimes only for a subset of videos) do not restrict the video URL by IP address, cookie, or user-agent, but these are the exception rather than the rule.

Please bear in mind that some URL protocols are not supported by browsers out of the box, including RTMP. If you are using -g, your own downloader must support these as well.

If you want to play the video on a machine that is not running youtube-dl, you can relay the video content from the machine that runs youtube-dl. You can use -o - to let youtube-dl stream a video to stdout, or simply allow the player to download the files written by youtube-dl in turn.

ERROR: no fmt_url_map or conn information found in video info

YouTube has switched to a new video info format in July 2011 which is not supported by old versions of youtube-dl. See above for how to update youtube-dl.

ERROR: unable to download video

YouTube requires an additional signature since September 2012 which is not supported by old versions of youtube-dl. See above for how to update youtube-dl.

Video URL contains an ampersand and I'm getting some strange output [1] 2839 or 'v' is not recognized as an internal or external command

That's actually the output from your shell. Since ampersand is one of the special shell characters it's interpreted by the shell preventing you from passing the whole URL to youtube-dl. To disable your shell from interpreting the ampersands (or any other special characters) you have to either put the whole URL in quotes or escape them with a backslash (which approach will work depends on your shell).

For example if your URL is https://www.youtube.com/watch?t=4&v=BaW_jenozKc you should end up with following command:

youtube-dl 'https://www.youtube.com/watch?t=4&v=BaW_jenozKc'

or

youtube-dl https://www.youtube.com/watch?t=4\&v=BaW_jenozKc

For Windows you have to use the double quotes:

youtube-dl "https://www.youtube.com/watch?t=4&v=BaW_jenozKc"

ExtractorError: Could not find JS function u'OF'

In February 2015, the new YouTube player contained a character sequence in a string that was misinterpreted by old versions of youtube-dl. See above for how to update youtube-dl.

HTTP Error 429: Too Many Requests or 402: Payment Required

These two error codes indicate that the service is blocking your IP address because of overuse. Usually this is a soft block meaning that you can gain access again after solving CAPTCHA. Just open a browser and solve a CAPTCHA the service suggests you and after that pass cookies to youtube-dl. Note that if your machine has multiple external IPs then you should also pass exactly the same IP you've used for solving CAPTCHA with --source-address. Also you may need to pass a User-Agent HTTP header of your browser with --user-agent.

If this is not the case (no CAPTCHA suggested to solve by the service) then you can contact the service and ask them to unblock your IP address, or - if you have acquired a whitelisted IP address already - use the --proxy or --source-address options to select another IP address.

SyntaxError: Non-ASCII character

The error

File "youtube-dl", line 2
SyntaxError: Non-ASCII character '\x93' ...

means you're using an outdated version of Python. Please update to Python 2.6 or 2.7.

What is this binary file? Where has the code gone?

Since June 2012 (#342) youtube-dl is packed as an executable zipfile, simply unzip it (might need renaming to youtube-dl.zip first on some systems) or clone the git repository, as laid out above. If you modify the code, you can run it by executing the __main__.py file. To recompile the executable, run make youtube-dl.

The exe throws an error due to missing MSVCR100.dll

To run the exe you need to install first the Microsoft Visual C++ 2010 Redistributable Package (x86).

On Windows, how should I set up ffmpeg and youtube-dl? Where should I put the exe files?

If you put youtube-dl and ffmpeg in the same directory that you're running the command from, it will work, but that's rather cumbersome.

To make a different directory work - either for ffmpeg, or for youtube-dl, or for both - simply create the directory (say, C:\bin, or C:\Users\<User name>\bin), put all the executables directly in there, and then set your PATH environment variable to include that directory.

From then on, after restarting your shell, you will be able to access both youtube-dl and ffmpeg (and youtube-dl will be able to find ffmpeg) by simply typing youtube-dl or ffmpeg, no matter what directory you're in.

How do I put downloads into a specific folder?

Use the -o to specify an output template, for example -o "/home/user/videos/%(title)s-%(id)s.%(ext)s". If you want this for all of your downloads, put the option into your configuration file.

How do I download a video starting with a -?

Either prepend https://www.youtube.com/watch?v= or separate the ID from the options with --:

youtube-dl -- -wNyEUrxzFU
youtube-dl "https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-wNyEUrxzFU"

How do I pass cookies to youtube-dl?

Use the --cookies option, for example --cookies /path/to/cookies/file.txt.

In order to extract cookies from browser use any conforming browser extension for exporting cookies. For example, cookies.txt (for Chrome) or cookies.txt (for Firefox).

Note that the cookies file must be in Mozilla/Netscape format and the first line of the cookies file must be either # HTTP Cookie File or # Netscape HTTP Cookie File. Make sure you have correct newline format in the cookies file and convert newlines if necessary to correspond with your OS, namely CRLF (\r\n) for Windows and LF (\n) for Unix and Unix-like systems (Linux, macOS, etc.). HTTP Error 400: Bad Request when using --cookies is a good sign of invalid newline format.

Passing cookies to youtube-dl is a good way to workaround login when a particular extractor does not implement it explicitly. Another use case is working around CAPTCHA some websites require you to solve in particular cases in order to get access (e.g. YouTube, CloudFlare).

How do I stream directly to media player?

You will first need to tell youtube-dl to stream media to stdout with -o -, and also tell your media player to read from stdin (it must be capable of this for streaming) and then pipe former to latter. For example, streaming to vlc can be achieved with:

youtube-dl -o - "https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BaW_jenozKcj" | vlc -

How do I download only new videos from a playlist?

Use download-archive feature. With this feature you should initially download the complete playlist with --download-archive /path/to/download/archive/file.txt that will record identifiers of all the videos in a special file. Each subsequent run with the same --download-archive will download only new videos and skip all videos that have been downloaded before. Note that only successful downloads are recorded in the file.

For example, at first,

youtube-dl --download-archive archive.txt "https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLwiyx1dc3P2JR9N8gQaQN_BCvlSlap7re"

will download the complete PLwiyx1dc3P2JR9N8gQaQN_BCvlSlap7re playlist and create a file archive.txt. Each subsequent run will only download new videos if any:

youtube-dl --download-archive archive.txt "https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLwiyx1dc3P2JR9N8gQaQN_BCvlSlap7re"

Should I add --hls-prefer-native into my config?

When youtube-dl detects an HLS video, it can download it either with the built-in downloader or ffmpeg. Since many HLS streams are slightly invalid and ffmpeg/youtube-dl each handle some invalid cases better than the other, there is an option to switch the downloader if needed.

When youtube-dl knows that one particular downloader works better for a given website, that downloader will be picked. Otherwise, youtube-dl will pick the best downloader for general compatibility, which at the moment happens to be ffmpeg. This choice may change in future versions of youtube-dl, with improvements of the built-in downloader and/or ffmpeg.

In particular, the generic extractor (used when your website is not in the list of supported sites by youtube-dl cannot mandate one specific downloader.

If you put either --hls-prefer-native or --hls-prefer-ffmpeg into your configuration, a different subset of videos will fail to download correctly. Instead, it is much better to file an issue or a pull request which details why the native or the ffmpeg HLS downloader is a better choice for your use case.

Can you add support for this anime video site, or site which shows current movies for free?

As a matter of policy (as well as legality), youtube-dl does not include support for services that specialize in infringing copyright. As a rule of thumb, if you cannot easily find a video that the service is quite obviously allowed to distribute (i.e. that has been uploaded by the creator, the creator's distributor, or is published under a free license), the service is probably unfit for inclusion to youtube-dl.

A note on the service that they don't host the infringing content, but just link to those who do, is evidence that the service should not be included into youtube-dl. The same goes for any DMCA note when the whole front page of the service is filled with videos they are not allowed to distribute. A "fair use" note is equally unconvincing if the service shows copyright-protected videos in full without authorization.

Support requests for services that do purchase the rights to distribute their content are perfectly fine though. If in doubt, you can simply include a source that mentions the legitimate purchase of content.

How can I speed up work on my issue?

(Also known as: Help, my important issue not being solved!) The youtube-dl core developer team is quite small. While we do our best to solve as many issues as possible, sometimes that can take quite a while. To speed up your issue, here's what you can do:

First of all, please do report the issue at our issue tracker. That allows us to coordinate all efforts by users and developers, and serves as a unified point. Unfortunately, the youtube-dl project has grown too large to use personal email as an effective communication channel.

Please read the bug reporting instructions below. A lot of bugs lack all the necessary information. If you can, offer proxy, VPN, or shell access to the youtube-dl developers. If you are able to, test the issue from multiple computers in multiple countries to exclude local censorship or misconfiguration issues.

If nobody is interested in solving your issue, you are welcome to take matters into your own hands and submit a pull request (or coerce/pay somebody else to do so).

Feel free to bump the issue from time to time by writing a small comment ("Issue is still present in youtube-dl version ...from France, but fixed from Belgium"), but please not more than once a month. Please do not declare your issue as important or urgent.

How can I detect whether a given URL is supported by youtube-dl?

For one, have a look at the list of supported sites. Note that it can sometimes happen that the site changes its URL scheme (say, from https://example.com/video/1234567 to https://example.com/v/1234567 ) and youtube-dl reports an URL of a service in that list as unsupported. In that case, simply report a bug.

It is not possible to detect whether a URL is supported or not. That's because youtube-dl contains a generic extractor which matches all URLs. You may be tempted to disable, exclude, or remove the generic extractor, but the generic extractor not only allows users to extract videos from lots of websites that embed a video from another service, but may also be used to extract video from a service that it's hosting itself. Therefore, we neither recommend nor support disabling, excluding, or removing the generic extractor.

If you want to find out whether a given URL is supported, simply call youtube-dl with it. If you get no videos back, chances are the URL is either not referring to a video or unsupported. You can find out which by examining the output (if you run youtube-dl on the console) or catching an UnsupportedError exception if you run it from a Python program.

Why do I need to go through that much red tape when filing bugs?

Before we had the issue template, despite our extensive bug reporting instructions, about 80% of the issue reports we got were useless, for instance because people used ancient versions hundreds of releases old, because of simple syntactic errors (not in youtube-dl but in general shell usage), because the problem was already reported multiple times before, because people did not actually read an error message, even if it said "please install ffmpeg", because people did not mention the URL they were trying to download and many more simple, easy-to-avoid problems, many of whom were totally unrelated to youtube-dl.

youtube-dl is an open-source project manned by too few volunteers, so we'd rather spend time fixing bugs where we are certain none of those simple problems apply, and where we can be reasonably confident to be able to reproduce the issue without asking the reporter repeatedly. As such, the output of youtube-dl -v YOUR_URL_HERE is really all that's required to file an issue. The issue template also guides you through some basic steps you can do, such as checking that your version of youtube-dl is current.

DEVELOPER INSTRUCTIONS

Most users do not need to build youtube-dl and can download the builds or get them from their distribution.

To run youtube-dl as a developer, you don't need to build anything either. Simply execute

python -m youtube_dl

To run the test, simply invoke your favorite test runner, or execute a test file directly; any of the following work:

python -m unittest discover
python test/test_download.py
nosetests

See item 6 of new extractor tutorial for how to run extractor specific test cases.

If you want to create a build of youtube-dl yourself, you'll need

Adding support for a new site

If you want to add support for a new site, first of all make sure this site is not dedicated to copyright infringement. youtube-dl does not support such sites thus pull requests adding support for them will be rejected.

After you have ensured this site is distributing its content legally, you can follow this quick list (assuming your service is called yourextractor):

  1. Fork this repository

  2. Check out the source code with:

    git clone [email protected]:YOUR_GITHUB_USERNAME/youtube-dl.git
    
  3. Start a new git branch with

    cd youtube-dl
    git checkout -b yourextractor
    
  4. Start with this simple template and save it to youtube_dl/extractor/yourextractor.py:

    # coding: utf-8
    from __future__ import unicode_literals
    
    from .common import InfoExtractor
    
    class YourExtractorIE(InfoExtractor):
        _VALID_URL = r'https?://(?:www\.)?yourextractor\.com/watch/(?P<id>[0-9]+)'
        _TEST = {
            'url': 'https://yourextractor.com/watch/42',
            'md5': 'TODO: md5 sum of the first 10241 bytes of the video file (use --test)',
            'info_dict': {
                'id': '42',
                'ext': 'mp4',
                'title': 'Video title goes here',
                'thumbnail': r're:^https?://.*\.jpg$',
                # TODO more properties, either as:
                # * A value
                # * MD5 checksum; start the string with md5:
                # * A regular expression; start the string with re:
                # * Any Python type (for example int or float)
            }
        }
    
        def _real_extract(self, url):
            video_id = self._match_id(url)
            webpage = self._download_webpage(url, video_id)
    
            # TODO more code goes here, for example ...
            title = self._html_search_regex(r'<h1>(.+?)</h1>', webpage, 'title')
    
            return {
                'id': video_id,
                'title': title,
                'description': self._og_search_description(webpage),
                'uploader': self._search_regex(r'<div[^>]+id="uploader"[^>]*>([^<]+)<', webpage, 'uploader', fatal=False),
                # TODO more properties (see youtube_dl/extractor/common.py)
            }
    
  5. Add an import in youtube_dl/extractor/extractors.py.

  6. Run python test/test_download.py TestDownload.test_YourExtractor. This should fail at first, but you can continually re-run it until you're done. If you decide to add more than one test, then rename _TEST to _TESTS and make it into a list of dictionaries. The tests will then be named TestDownload.test_YourExtractor, TestDownload.test_YourExtractor_1, TestDownload.test_YourExtractor_2, etc. Note that tests with only_matching key in test's dict are not counted in.

  7. Have a look at youtube_dl/extractor/common.py for possible helper methods and a detailed description of what your extractor should and may return. Add tests and code for as many as you want.

  8. Make sure your code follows youtube-dl coding conventions and check the code with flake8:

    $ flake8 youtube_dl/extractor/yourextractor.py
    
  9. Make sure your code works under all Python versions claimed supported by youtube-dl, namely 2.6, 2.7, and 3.2+.

  10. When the tests pass, add the new files and commit them and push the result, like this:

    $ git add youtube_dl/extractor/extractors.py
    $ git add youtube_dl/extractor/yourextractor.py
    $ git commit -m '[yourextractor] Add new extractor'
    $ git push origin yourextractor
    
  11. Finally, create a pull request. We'll then review and merge it.

In any case, thank you very much for your contributions!

youtube-dl coding conventions

This section introduces a guide lines for writing idiomatic, robust and future-proof extractor code.

Extractors are very fragile by nature since they depend on the layout of the source data provided by 3rd party media hosters out of your control and this layout tends to change. As an extractor implementer your task is not only to write code that will extract media links and metadata correctly but also to minimize dependency on the source's layout and even to make the code foresee potential future changes and be ready for that. This is important because it will allow the extractor not to break on minor layout changes thus keeping old youtube-dl versions working. Even though this breakage issue is easily fixed by emitting a new version of youtube-dl with a fix incorporated, all the previous versions become broken in all repositories and distros' packages that may not be so prompt in fetching the update from us. Needless to say, some non rolling release distros may never receive an update at all.

Mandatory and optional metafields

For extraction to work youtube-dl relies on metadata your extractor extracts and provides to youtube-dl expressed by an information dictionary or simply info dict. Only the following meta fields in the info dict are considered mandatory for a successful extraction process by youtube-dl:

In fact only the last option is technically mandatory (i.e. if you can't figure out the download location of the media the extraction does not make any sense). But by convention youtube-dl also treats id and title as mandatory. Thus the aforementioned metafields are the critical data that the extraction does not make any sense without and if any of them fail to be extracted then the extractor is considered completely broken.

Any field apart from the aforementioned ones are considered optional. That means that extraction should be tolerant to situations when sources for these fields can potentially be unavailable (even if they are always available at the moment) and future-proof in order not to break the extraction of general purpose mandatory fields.

Example

Say you have some source dictionary meta that you've fetched as JSON with HTTP request and it has a key summary:

meta = self._download_json(url, video_id)

Assume at this point meta's layout is:

{
    ...
    "summary": "some fancy summary text",
    ...
}

Assume you want to extract summary and put it into the resulting info dict as description. Since description is an optional meta field you should be ready that this key may be missing from the meta dict, so that you should extract it like:

description = meta.get('summary')  # correct

and not like:

description = meta['summary']  # incorrect

The latter will break extraction process with KeyError if summary disappears from meta at some later time but with the former approach extraction will just go ahead with description set to None which is perfectly fine (remember None is equivalent to the absence of data).

Similarly, you should pass fatal=False when extracting optional data from a webpage with _search_regex, _html_search_regex or similar methods, for instance:

description = self._search_regex(
    r'<span[^>]+id="title"[^>]*>([^<]+)<',
    webpage, 'description', fatal=False)

With fatal set to False if _search_regex fails to extract description it will emit a warning and continue extraction.

You can also pass default=<some fallback value>, for example:

description = self._search_regex(
    r'<span[^>]+id="title"[^>]*>([^<]+)<',
    webpage, 'description', default=None)

On failure this code will silently continue the extraction with description set to None. That is useful for metafields that may or may not be present.

Provide fallbacks

When extracting metadata try to do so from multiple sources. For example if title is present in several places, try extracting from at least some of them. This makes it more future-proof in case some of the sources become unavailable.

Example

Say meta from the previous example has a title and you are about to extract it. Since title is a mandatory meta field you should end up with something like:

title = meta['title']

If title disappears from meta in future due to some changes on the hoster's side the extraction would fail since title is mandatory. That's expected.

Assume that you have some another source you can extract title from, for example og:title HTML meta of a webpage. In this case you can provide a fallback scenario:

title = meta.get('title') or self._og_search_title(webpage)

This code will try to extract from meta first and if it fails it will try extracting og:title from a webpage.

Regular expressions

Don't capture groups you don't use

Capturing group must be an indication that it's used somewhere in the code. Any group that is not used must be non capturing.

Example

Don't capture id attribute name here since you can't use it for anything anyway.

Correct:

r'(?:id|ID)=(?P<id>\d+)'

Incorrect:

r'(id|ID)=(?P<id>\d+)'

Make regular expressions relaxed and flexible

When using regular expressions try to write them fuzzy, relaxed and flexible, skipping insignificant parts that are more likely to change, allowing both single and double quotes for quoted values and so on.

Example

Say you need to extract title from the following HTML code:

<span style="position: absolute; left: 910px; width: 90px; float: right; z-index: 9999;" class="title">some fancy title</span>

The code for that task should look similar to:

title = self._search_regex(
    r'<span[^>]+class="title"[^>]*>([^<]+)', webpage, 'title')

Or even better:

title = self._search_regex(
    r'<span[^>]+class=(["\'])title\1[^>]*>(?P<title>[^<]+)',
    webpage, 'title', group='title')

Note how you tolerate potential changes in the style attribute's value or switch from using double quotes to single for class attribute:

The code definitely should not look like:

title = self._search_regex(
    r'<span style="position: absolute; left: 910px; width: 90px; float: right; z-index: 9999;" class="title">(.*?)</span>',
    webpage, 'title', group='title')

Long lines policy

There is a soft limit to keep lines of code under 80 characters long. This means it should be respected if possible and if it does not make readability and code maintenance worse.

For example, you should never split long string literals like URLs or some other often copied entities over multiple lines to fit this limit:

Correct:

'https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FqZTN594JQw&list=PLMYEtVRpaqY00V9W81Cwmzp6N6vZqfUKD4'

Incorrect:

'https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FqZTN594JQw&list='
'PLMYEtVRpaqY00V9W81Cwmzp6N6vZqfUKD4'

Inline values

Extracting variables is acceptable for reducing code duplication and improving readability of complex expressions. However, you should avoid extracting variables used only once and moving them to opposite parts of the extractor file, which makes reading the linear flow difficult.

Example

Correct:

title = self._html_search_regex(r'<title>([^<]+)</title>', webpage, 'title')

Incorrect:

TITLE_RE = r'<title>([^<]+)</title>'
# ...some lines of code...
title = self._html_search_regex(TITLE_RE, webpage, 'title')

Collapse fallbacks

Multiple fallback values can quickly become unwieldy. Collapse multiple fallback values into a single expression via a list of patterns.

Example

Good:

description = self._html_search_meta(
    ['og:description', 'description', 'twitter:description'],
    webpage, 'description', default=None)

Unwieldy:

description = (
    self._og_search_description(webpage, default=None)
    or self._html_search_meta('description', webpage, default=None)
    or self._html_search_meta('twitter:description', webpage, default=None))

Methods supporting list of patterns are: _search_regex, _html_search_regex, _og_search_property, _html_search_meta.

Trailing parentheses

Always move trailing parentheses after the last argument.

Example

Correct:

    lambda x: x['ResultSet']['Result'][0]['VideoUrlSet']['VideoUrl'],
    list)

Incorrect:

    lambda x: x['ResultSet']['Result'][0]['VideoUrlSet']['VideoUrl'],
    list,
)

Use convenience conversion and parsing functions

Wrap all extracted numeric data into safe functions from youtube_dl/utils.py: int_or_none, float_or_none. Use them for string to number conversions as well.

Use url_or_none for safe URL processing.

Use try_get for safe metadata extraction from parsed JSON.

Use unified_strdate for uniform upload_date or any YYYYMMDD meta field extraction, unified_timestamp for uniform timestamp extraction, parse_filesize for filesize extraction, parse_count for count meta fields extraction, parse_resolution, parse_duration for duration extraction, parse_age_limit for age_limit extraction.

Explore youtube_dl/utils.py for more useful convenience functions.

More examples

Safely extract optional description from parsed JSON
description = try_get(response, lambda x: x['result']['video'][0]['summary'], compat_str)
Safely extract more optional metadata
video = try_get(response, lambda x: x['result']['video'][0], dict) or {}
description = video.get('summary')
duration = float_or_none(video.get('durationMs'), scale=1000)
view_count = int_or_none(video.get('views'))

EMBEDDING YOUTUBE-DL

youtube-dl makes the best effort to be a good command-line program, and thus should be callable from any programming language. If you encounter any problems parsing its output, feel free to create a report.

From a Python program, you can embed youtube-dl in a more powerful fashion, like this:

from __future__ import unicode_literals
import youtube_dl

ydl_opts = {}
with youtube_dl.YoutubeDL(ydl_opts) as ydl:
    ydl.download(['https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BaW_jenozKc'])

Most likely, you'll want to use various options. For a list of options available, have a look at youtube_dl/YoutubeDL.py. For a start, if you want to intercept youtube-dl's output, set a logger object.

Here's a more complete example of a program that outputs only errors (and a short message after the download is finished), and downloads/converts the video to an mp3 file:

from __future__ import unicode_literals
import youtube_dl

class MyLogger(object):
    def debug(self, msg):
        pass

    def warning(self, msg):
        pass

    def error(self, msg):
        print(msg)

def my_hook(d):
    if d['status'] == 'finished':
        print('Done downloading, now converting ...')

ydl_opts = {
    'format': 'bestaudio/best',
    'postprocessors': [{
        'key': 'FFmpegExtractAudio',
        'preferredcodec': 'mp3',
        'preferredquality': '192',
    }],
    'logger': MyLogger(),
    'progress_hooks': [my_hook],
}
with youtube_dl.YoutubeDL(ydl_opts) as ydl:
    ydl.download(['https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BaW_jenozKc'])

BUGS

Bugs and suggestions should be reported at: https://github.com/ytdl-org/youtube-dl/issues. Unless you were prompted to or there is another pertinent reason (e.g. GitHub fails to accept the bug report), please do not send bug reports via personal email. For discussions, join us in the IRC channel #youtube-dl on freenode (webchat).

Please include the full output of youtube-dl when run with -v, i.e. add -v flag to your command line, copy the whole output and post it in the issue body wrapped in ``` for better formatting. It should look similar to this:

$ youtube-dl -v <your command line>
[debug] System config: []
[debug] User config: []
[debug] Command-line args: [u'-v', u'https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BaW_jenozKcj']
[debug] Encodings: locale cp1251, fs mbcs, out cp866, pref cp1251
[debug] youtube-dl version 2015.12.06
[debug] Git HEAD: 135392e
[debug] Python version 2.6.6 - Windows-2003Server-5.2.3790-SP2
[debug] exe versions: ffmpeg N-75573-g1d0487f, ffprobe N-75573-g1d0487f, rtmpdump 2.4
[debug] Proxy map: {}
...

Do not post screenshots of verbose logs; only plain text is acceptable.

The output (including the first lines) contains important debugging information. Issues without the full output are often not reproducible and therefore do not get solved in short order, if ever.

Please re-read your issue once again to avoid a couple of common mistakes (you can and should use this as a checklist):

Is the description of the issue itself sufficient?

We often get issue reports that we cannot really decipher. While in most cases we eventually get the required information after asking back multiple times, this poses an unnecessary drain on our resources. Many contributors, including myself, are also not native speakers, so we may misread some parts.

So please elaborate on what feature you are requesting, or what bug you want to be fixed. Make sure that it's obvious

If your report is shorter than two lines, it is almost certainly missing some of these, which makes it hard for us to respond to it. We're often too polite to close the issue outright, but the missing info makes misinterpretation likely. As a committer myself, I often get frustrated by these issues, since the only possible way for me to move forward on them is to ask for clarification over and over.

For bug reports, this means that your report should contain the complete output of youtube-dl when called with the -v flag. The error message you get for (most) bugs even says so, but you would not believe how many of our bug reports do not contain this information.

If your server has multiple IPs or you suspect censorship, adding --call-home may be a good idea to get more diagnostics. If the error is ERROR: Unable to extract ... and you cannot reproduce it from multiple countries, add --dump-pages (warning: this will yield a rather large output, redirect it to the file log.txt by adding >log.txt 2>&1 to your command-line) or upload the .dump files you get when you add --write-pages somewhere.

Site support requests must contain an example URL. An example URL is a URL you might want to download, like https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BaW_jenozKc. There should be an obvious video present. Except under very special circumstances, the main page of a video service (e.g. https://www.youtube.com/) is not an example URL.

Are you using the latest version?

Before reporting any issue, type youtube-dl -U. This should report that you're up-to-date. About 20% of the reports we receive are already fixed, but people are using outdated versions. This goes for feature requests as well.

Is the issue already documented?

Make sure that someone has not already opened the issue you're trying to open. Search at the top of the window or browse the GitHub Issues of this repository. If there is an issue, feel free to write something along the lines of "This affects me as well, with version 2015.01.01. Here is some more information on the issue: ...". While some issues may be old, a new post into them often spurs rapid activity.

Why are existing options not enough?

Before requesting a new feature, please have a quick peek at the list of supported options. Many feature requests are for features that actually exist already! Please, absolutely do show off your work in the issue report and detail how the existing similar options do not solve your problem.

Is there enough context in your bug report?

People want to solve problems, and often think they do us a favor by breaking down their larger problems (e.g. wanting to skip already downloaded files) to a specific request (e.g. requesting us to look whether the file exists before downloading the info page). However, what often happens is that they break down the problem into two steps: One simple, and one impossible (or extremely complicated one).

We are then presented with a very complicated request when the original problem could be solved far easier, e.g. by recording the downloaded video IDs in a separate file. To avoid this, you must include the greater context where it is non-obvious. In particular, every feature request that does not consist of adding support for a new site should contain a use case scenario that explains in what situation the missing feature would be useful.

Does the issue involve one problem, and one problem only?

Some of our users seem to think there is a limit of issues they can or should open. There is no limit of issues they can or should open. While it may seem appealing to be able to dump all your issues into one ticket, that means that someone who solves one of your issues cannot mark the issue as closed. Typically, reporting a bunch of issues leads to the ticket lingering since nobody wants to attack that behemoth, until someone mercifully splits the issue into multiple ones.

In particular, every site support request issue should only pertain to services at one site (generally under a common domain, but always using the same backend technology). Do not request support for vimeo user videos, White house podcasts, and Google Plus pages in the same issue. Also, make sure that you don't post bug reports alongside feature requests. As a rule of thumb, a feature request does not include outputs of youtube-dl that are not immediately related to the feature at hand. Do not post reports of a network error alongside the request for a new video service.

Is anyone going to need the feature?

Only post features that you (or an incapacitated friend you can personally talk to) require. Do not post features because they seem like a good idea. If they are really useful, they will be requested by someone who requires them.

Is your question about youtube-dl?

It may sound strange, but some bug reports we receive are completely unrelated to youtube-dl and relate to a different, or even the reporter's own, application. Please make sure that you are actually using youtube-dl. If you are using a UI for youtube-dl, report the bug to the maintainer of the actual application providing the UI. On the other hand, if your UI for youtube-dl fails in some way you believe is related to youtube-dl, by all means, go ahead and report the bug.

COPYRIGHT

youtube-dl is released into the public domain by the copyright holders.

This README file was originally written by Daniel Bolton and is likewise released into the public domain.